Loss Of Health

Loss of Health

Chellis Glendinning

(Chapter excerpt from Chellis Glendinning's When Technology Wounds)

Eventually I collapsed at work and had to be rushed to the emergency room.

-Michael Wagner, New Jersey homeowner exposed to formaldehyde in foam insulation'

All the Thule workers who were in the cleanup, they're all old men now. My husband is only 49, but he's an old man now.

-Sally Markussen, wife of cleanup crew member, 1968 hydrogen bomb accident in Greenland2

Always, we notice the powder of the pesticides on the leaves. I was working in the fields from the beginning of my pregnancy. I was groggy from the Caesarean when the doctor told me, "I have bad news." He simply said Felipe was born without arms or legs. His father was crying. And my mother even more. When we first saw him we felt a great sadness. The doctors told me it was because of the pesticides.

-Ramona Franco, grape picker, Delano, Califbrnia3

The first loss, and the one that precipitates all others, is bodily. Although the diseases caused by different technologies are different and the medical effects of a single technology can vary from person to person, what is universal is loss of health.

Atomic veteran Gilberto Quintana has endured a typical lineup of physical maladies he believes stem from exposure to radiation: prostate cancer, sterility, seizures, and bone deterioration. He describes his experience as "hell." Now over sixty years old, he has a pronounced limp, and on his face he displays the fatigue of a man overwrought by a lifetime of internal stress. "I was just thirty-eight when it all started," he says. "Since then I haven't lived one day without pain. I am always tired, always depressed. I do everything from the gut."

At the peak of her IUD-induced infections, Wendy Grace's physician said she was "as close to death as anybody I have seen." She remembers that time as one of helplessness and pain. After several surgeries, she could endure no more, and the doctor told her to lie in bed for nine months so the abscess festering in her belly could bleed through the skin.

After regulation termite spraying of her house with the chemical chiordane, Bliss Bruen suffered the miscarriage of "a stillborn little fetus," a child she and her husband wanted dearly and mourned for years.

Loran Calvert got asbestosis after working as a machinist and test specialist at a naval shipyard. Today his breathing is heavy and hoarse, and every day he worries that the disease will turn into lung cancer. "I do the best I can now," he says. "It could happen to me overnight."

The health effects caused by many technologies are still not understood. The slow march of laboratory studies and the quickly rising numbers of very sick people provide the material for research conducted by government agencies, industry, independent researchers, universities, and survivors themselves. As more technologies are proving dangerous, some causes and effects are emerging.

The principal biological effect of radiation exposure is the break-down of cell structure. Oddly, radiation damage can be more serious at low levels than at high ones. Drinking contaminated milk or breathing background fallout can be more harmful than getting an X ray. High doses kill the body's cells, and for disease to develop, cells must be alive. Rarely killing a cell outright, low-level radiation scrambles cellular chemistry, rearranges genetic information, and leaves the cell vulnerable to the invasion of viruses, from common flus to more serious pathogens, like those associated with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome. Depending on the location of mutation, cellular disorganization can lead to rheumatic arthritis, leukemia, cancer, premature aging, sterility, premature births, congenital defects, cataracts, and death.4

Then there are chemicals and metals. At a 1971 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a symposium attempted to rank nineteen major environmental stressors as to their effects on human health. Each technology was scored according to the persistence, range, and complexity of its threat. At the top of the list stood pesticides, followed by heavy metals.5

Exposure to pesticides and metals in water, food, and air can permanently disrupt nervous system functioning and cause brain damage.6 Pesticide exposure is linked to hypertension,7 Parkinson's disease,8 epilepsy,9 and cardiovascular disorders. It can induce allergic sensitivities11 and possibly liver disease.'2 The common apple-preserving chemical daminozide, if ingested over a lifetime, can cause cancer.13 The pesticides captan, chlorothalonil, permethrin, acephate, parathion, dieldrin, methomyl, and folpet~etected by the Food and Drug Administration in apples, carrots, cauliflower, cherries, grapes, and peaches-are also carcinogenic. 14

Dioxins, the herbicides known for their use in Vietnam, are also used in the United States on farms, national forests, urban parks, and lawns. They can be a potent immunosuppressant, leaving the body open to secondary infections, allergies, and autoimmune disease,15 and a study reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association links use of dioxin by Kansas farmers with an eight-fold increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.16

Industrial solvents are also extremely health-threatening. Chemicals like trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and l,2-transdichloro-ethylene are found in electronics plants and dry cleaning factories, as well as in the water supplies of industrial communities like Woburn, Massachusetts. They can cause recurrent infections, immunologic deterioration, leukemia,'1 and neurological disorders that can result in panic attacks, personality imbalances, and spinal cord lesions. 18 Health studies of Woburn residents over a fifteen-year period after documented exposure to trichloroethylene, dichloroethy-lene, tetrachloroethylene, and trichioroethane show a twofold and threefold increase in birth defects and infant deaths. 19

Exposure to the common air pollutants cadmium, lead, and carbon monoxide is linked to respiratory disorders, asthma, high blood pressure, and heart disease,20 while contamination by many toxic chemicals can lead to a decrease in sperm density21 or chromosome aberrations.22 Exposure to benzene in gasoline products,23 lead in air pollution,24 PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in electrical trans-formers and plastics,25 and ozone from automobile exhaust26 can result in the deterioration of one's immune response, as well as cancer, leukemia, and birth defects.

The flame retardant PBB (polybrominated biphenyl) can cause suppression of the all-important T-lymphocytes in the blood, weakening one's immune capability and increasing susceptibility to illness.27 The new field of subliminal toxicology, which detects subtle changes in neurological function, reveals that people exposed to PCBs and dioxins can show memory loss, impaired mental acuity, and loss of coordination-all of which may be precursors to more serious disease.2'

Formaldehyde is a gas used in insulation, particle board, plywood, furniture sealants, and carbonless carbon paper. It is inserted into carpets, cotton bedsheets, and deodorants and used in disinfectants and fumigants. According to recent studies, formaldehyde is linked to nasal cancer,29 neurological disorders, respiratory disease, and immunologic deterioration.30

Asbestos has been used in pipe covering, brake linings, plaster, insulation, roofing, textiles, cement, paper, and felt. When the microscopically small fibers of asbestos enter a person's lungs, the body encases them in scar tissue, which, if pronounced, blocks the lungs from transferring oxygen into the bloodstream. The result is asbestosis. Other possibilities include mesothelioma (tumors on the membrane lining of the lungs) and cancer of the stomach, large intestine, kidney, larynx, and rectum. Exposure to asbestos can also affect the human immune response, leaving one open to secondary infections, allergies, and autoimmune disease.3'

The overall effect of the introduction of vast quantities of chemicals and metals in the biosphere becomes evident when we compare cancer statistics. In 1900, cancer accounted for only 3 percent of the total deaths in the United States: that is, one in every thirty4hree people. Since the introduction of thousands of new chemicals beginning in the 1940s, one in three people now contracts the disease, and according to the U.S. Toxic Substance Strategy, 8~9O percent of these may be induced by environmental contamination.32

Statistics on environmental illness also offer perspective. Environmental illness is the deterioration of the immune system to the point of susceptibility to allergies, viruses, bacterial infections, and imbalances of internal flora. By all accounts this condition has been on the rise in recent decades in the United States and other industrial countries. The Board of Environmental Studies and Toxicology of the National Research Council estimates that 15 percent of United States citizens are now hypersensitive to chemicals found in common household products.33 Government research in West Germany indicates that one out of every four people in that country is sensitive to some food, chemical, or insect, and allergic reactions are appearing earlier in life than ever before.34

Adding to the dangers posed by chemicals and metals are other technological contaminants. Some researchers have found that exposure to the nonionizing radioactive pulses of video display terminals, electric blankets, and water bed heaters can lead to heart disease, male reproductive failure, miscarriage, birth defects, and depression.35 Chronic exposure to the electromagnetic fields spawned by high-voltage power lines may result in disturbances in human biological cycles and diminished immune response-and a lessening of resistance against infectious diseases, leukemia, and cancers. Exposure to electroradiation can also cause birth defects and genetic diseases like Down's syndrome.36

Overdoses of antibiotics can disrupt the healthy balance of bacteria in and on the body, leaving a person open to infection by disease-carrying microbes or the overgrowth of internal flora like candida.37 Oral contraceptives are thought to cause thromboembolic diseases like phlebitis, stroke, and heart attack; liver tumors;38 bypertension;39 and cancer.40 New research suggests that artificial hormones, which include DES, steroids, and estrogen replacement therapy as well as birth control pills, can also contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases like lupus erythematosus, Graves' disease, and arthritis as well as lowered immune response.41

DES sons face an increased risk of infertility, structural abnormalities of the testes, and testicular cancer.42 Daughters are two to four times as likely as nonexposed women to develop cervical carcinoma,43 while some of them contract clear cell adenocarcinoma. Many DES daughters also sustain structural alterations of their reproductive organs, predisposing them to infertility, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancies, and premature births.44 Mothers who took DES are 40 to 50 percent more likely to develop breast cancer than those who did not.45

Technologies added to what we eat and drink can also be health-threatening. Synthetic flavorings and food dyes constitute about 80 percent of all additives, and they have been linked to learning disabilities and hyperkinesis in children.46 Animal studies show that the sweetener saccharin47 can lead to cancer. The meat preservative nitrite can contribute to cancer,48 as can the artificial hormones like DES, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone that are used to raise farm animals in the United States.49

Vegetable gums like guar, carrageenin, and carob bean gum50 and preservatives like sodium benzoate,51 sulfur compounds,52 and BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) and BHT53 (butylated hydroxytoluene) can cause allergic reactions-from hives and coughing to bleeding into the skin, migraine headaches, and mental illness. When molecules of the plastic packaging vinyl chloride chemically interact with foods, they can lead to cancer.54 The chemical styrene, found in polystyrene-based disposable cups as well as in exhaled cigarctte smoke and drinking water, can contribute to insomnia, nerve conduction abnormalities, chromosomal aberrations, and lymphatic and blood cancers.55

These are the known and suspected health effects of just a few modern technologies.

1. Quoted in "The Danger Within," aired on ABC News 20/20, New York, February 4, 1982.

2. Quoted in Peter de Selding, "A Broken Arrow's Dark Legacy," Nation (June 25, 1988), p.890.

3. Quoted in Lonny Shavelson, "Our Children Are Our Canaries," Cai~~rnia Tomorrow (Fall 1988), p.27.

4. Abram Petkau, "Effect of 22 Na + on a Phospholid Membrane," Health Physics Vol.22 (1972), p.239; Abram Petkau, "A Radiation Carcinogene~ sis from a Membrane Perspective," Acta Physiologica Scandinavia, Suppi. Vol.492 (1980), pp.81-90; Charles Waldren, Laura Correll, Marguerite Sognier, and Theodore Puck, "Measurement of Low Levels of X-ray Mutagenesis in Relation to Human Disease," Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences, Vol.83 (1986), pp. 4839A843; United Nations Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Ionizing Radiation: Levels and Effects (New York: United Nations Publications), 1972; National Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, National Academy of Sciences, The Effects on Populations ofExposure to Low Levels oflonizing Radiation (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1980); and John Gofman, Radiation and Human Health (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1981).

5. Harrison Wellington, Sowing the Wind (New York: Grossman, 1972), p.188.

6. P.R. Metcalf and J.H. Holmes, "EEG, Psychological and Neurological Alterations in Humans with Organophosphorus Exposure," Annals ofNew York Academy of Sciences, Vol.160, No. 1(1969), pp.357-365; and Raymond Singer, "Proving Damages in Toxic Torts," Trial (November 1985).

7. J.L. Radomski et al., "Pesticide Concentrations in the Liver, Brain, and Adipose Tissue of Terminal Hospital Patients," Food and Cosmetics Toxicology, Vol.6 (1968), pp.209-225.

8. K.L. Davis, J.A. Savage, and P.A. Berger, "Possible OrganophosphateInduced Parkinsonism," Journal of Nervous Mental Disorder:, Vol.166 (1978), pp.222-225.

9. D. Nag, G.C. Singh, and S. Senon, "Epilepsy Epidemic Due to Benzahexachiorine," Tropical and Geographical Medicine, Vol.29 (1977), pp.229-232.

10. V.S. Gumenniyi and L.F. Kach, "Findings on Incidence of Diseases of the Cardiovascular System and Respiratory Organs in Areas with Intense and Limited Use of Pesticides," Pesticide Abstracts, Vol 10, No.77-0802 (1976).

11. T.H. Milby and W.L. Epstein, "Allergic Contact Sensitivity to Malathion," Archives of En vironmental Health, Vol.9 (1964), pp. 43~37.

12. Radomski et al., "Pesticide Concentrations," pp.209-225.

13. Cited in Philip Shabecoff, "Hazard Reported in Apple Chemical," New York Times (February 2, 1989).

14. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Unfinished Business:Comparative Assessment of Environmental Problems (Washington, D.C.:U.S. EPA/Office of Policy Analysis, February 1987), pp. 8~86; and Lawne Mott and Karen Snyder, "Pesticide Alert," Amicus Journal, Vol.10, No.2 (Spring 1988), p.28.

15. M. Loglen et al., "Role of the Endocrine System in the Action of 2,3,7,8-TCDD on the Thymus," Toxicology, Vol.15 (1980), p.135; R.D. Hinsdill, D.L. Couch, and R.S. Speirs, "Immunosuppression Induced by Dioxin (TCDD) in Feed," Journal of Environmental Toxicology, Vol.4 (1980), p.401; and J.G. Vos, "Dioxin Induced Thymic Atrophy and Suppression of Thymus-Dependent Immunity," in Bradbury Report: Biological Method ofDioxin Action (Cold Springs, Maine: Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory) pp.401410.

16. Sheila Hoar et al., "Agricultural Herbicide Use and Risk of Lymphoma and Soft-Tissue Sarcoma," Journal ofAmerican Medical Association, Vol. 256, No.9 (September 5, 1986), pp.1141-1147; Mary Moses, "Cancer in Humans and Potential Occupational and Environmental Exposure in Pesticides," AAOHN Journal, Vol.37, No.3 (March 1989); Patricia Breslin et al., "Proportionate Mortality Study of Army and Marine Corps Veterans of the Vietnam War" (Washington, D.C.: Office of Environmental Epidemiology/Department of Veteran Affairs); Han Kang et al., "Soft Tissue Carcinoma in the Military Service in Vietnam," Journal of the National Cancer Institute (October 1987); and Leonard Hardell, "Association Between Soft Tissue Sarcoma and 17. V.S. Byers et al., "Association Between Clinical Symptoms and Lymphocyte Abnormalities in a Population with Chronic Domestic Exposure to Industrial Solvent-Contaminated Domestic Water Supply and a High Incidence of Leukemia," Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, Vol.27 (1988), pp.77-81.

18. Stephen Dager et al., "Panic Disorder Precipitated by Exposure to Organic Solvents in the Workplace," American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 144, No.8 (August 1987), pp. l05~1058; U. Flodin, C. Edling, and 0. Axelson, "Clinical Studies of Psychoorganic Syndromes Among Workers with Exposure to Solvents," American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol.5 (1984), pp.287-295; and K. Lindstrom, H. Ruhimaki, and K. Hamminen, "Occupational Solvent Exposure and Neuropsychiatric Disorders," Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental Health, Vol.10 (1984), pp.321-323.

19. S.W. Lagakos, B.J. Wesson, and M. Zelen, The Woburn Health Study Z984 (Boston: Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, 1984).

20. C. Schoettlin, "Air Pollution and Asthma Attacks in the Los Angeles Area," Public Health Reports, Vol.76 (1961), p.545; J. Douglass, "Air Pollution and Respiratory Infections in Children," Brftish Journal ofPreventative Social Medicine, Vol.20 (1966), p.1; D. Coffin, "Effect of Air Pollution on Alteration of Susceptibility to Pulmonary Infection," Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Atmospheric Contaminants in Confined Spaces (1968), p.75; W. Aronow, "Effect of Freeway Travel on Angina Pectoris," Annals oflnternal Medicine, Vol.77 (1972), p.669; and E. Anderson, "Effect of Low Level Carbon Monoxide Exposure on Onset and Duration of Angina Pectoris," Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol.79 (1973), p.46.

21. Ralph Dougherty et al., "Sperm Density and Toxic Substances: A Potential Key to Environmental Health Hazards" (Unpublished paper), p.3.

22. Robert Knapp, Danta Picciano, and Cecile Jacobson, "Y-Chromosomal Iondisjunctional in Dibromochloropropane-Exposed Workers," Mutation Research, Vol.64 (1979).

23. R. Adamson and S.M. Seiber, "Chemically Induced Leukemia in Humans," Environmental Health Perspective, Vol.49 (1981), p.93; P.F. Infante, "Leukemia in Benzene Workers," Lancet, Vol.2 (1977), pp. 7~78; and R.A. Rinsky et al., "Benzene and Leukemia," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol.316 (1987), pp.1044-1050.

24. J.R. Reigart and C.D. Graber, "Evaluation of the Humoral Response of Children with Low Level Lead Exposure," Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology, Vol.16, No.1(1976), p. 112; J.A. Thomas and W.C. Brogan III, "Some Actions of Lead on the Sperm of the Male Reproductive System," American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol.4, (1983), pp.127-134; and D. Bellinger et al., "Longitudinal Analyses of Prenatal and Postnatal Lead Exposure and Early Cognitive Development," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol.316 (1987), pp.1037-1043.

25. K.J. Chang et al., "Immunologic Ev~uation of Patients with Polychlorinated Biphenyl Poisoning," Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol.61(1981), p.58; D. P. Brown, "Mortality of Workers Exposed to Polychiorinated Biphenyls: An Update," Archives ofEn vfronmental Health, Vol.42, No.6 (November/December 1987); I. Kalina et al., "Mutagenic and Carcinogenic Effects of Polychlorobiphenyls," Casopis Lekura Ceckych (Praha), Vol.127, No.14 (April 1, 1988), pp.426429; and H. Tsuji et al., "Liver Damage and Heptatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Yusho," Fukuoka Igaku Zarshi, Vol.78, No.5 (May 1987), p.343-348.

26. M.C. Peterson, "Immunotoxic Effects of Ozone in Humans" in I.M. Asher, ed., Inadvertent Modification of the Immune Response, United States Federal Drug Administration/Occupational Health Agency, Bulletin No.80-1074 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980), pp. 178-182; R.E. Zelac et al., "Inhaled Ozone as a Mutagen," Environmental Research, Vol.4 (1971), p.262; and R.R. Guerrerro et al., "Mutagenic Effects of Ozone on Human Cells," Environmental Research, Vol.18 (1979), p.336.

27. J.G. Bekesi et al., "Investigation of the Immunological Effects of Polybrominated Biphenyls in Michigan Farmers," in J.H. Dean and M. Padaranth Singh, eds., Biological Relevance of lmmune Suppression (New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981), pp.119-135.

28. Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Education, "Subtle Effects of Toxics," FASE Research Bulletin, Vol.7, No.1 (Spring 1988).

29. Committee on Toxicology, National Research Council, Formaldehyde: An Assessment of Its Health Effects (Washington, D.C.: National Academy

Press, 1980); J.C. Harris et al., "Toxicology of Urea-Formaldehyde and Polyurethane Foam Insulation," Journal of the Amerkan Medical Association, Vol.245, No.3 (January 1981); National Research Council, Formaldehyde and Other Aldehydes (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1981); R.C. Anderson et al., "Toxicity of Thermal Decomposition Products of Urea-Formaldehyde and Phenol Formaldehyde foams," Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol.51, No.9 (1977); and Consumer Product Safety Commission, "Ban of Urea-Formaldehyde Foam Insulation," Federal Register, Vol.47 (April 2, 1982), p. 1436t—14419.

31. Irving Selikoff, Jacob Chung, and Cuyler Hammond, Paper delivered at the Conference on the Biological Effects of Asbestos, New York Academy of Sciences (New York: October 1964); and E. Kagan et al., "Immunological Studies of Patients with Asbestosis I," Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Vol.28 (1977), p.261; and A. Lange, "An Epistemiological Survey of Immunological Abnormalities in Asbestos Workers II," Environ-mental Research, Vol.22 (1980), p.176.

32. Ralph Nader, Ronald Brownstein, and John Richards, eds., Who's Poisoning America? Corporate Polluters and Their Victims in the Chemical Age (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1981), p.12; and Science for the People, (January/February 1989), entire issue.

33. Linda Lee Davidoff, "Multiple Chemical Sensitivities," Amicus Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1 (Winter 1989), p. 15.

34. Oar Smith, "Ebb and Flow," Earth Island Journal, (Fall 1987), p.3.

35. J. Manson and N. Simons, "Influence of Environmental Agents on Male Reproductive Failure," in Vilma Hunt, ed., Work and the Health of Women (Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 1979); Arthur Bloom, ed., Guidelines forStudies of Human Populations Exposed to Mutagenk and Reproductive Hazards (New York: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 1981), p. 98; G.R. Strobino, J. Klein, and Z. Stein, "Chemical and Physical Exposureof Parents: Effects on Human Reproduction in Offspring," Journal of Early Human Development, Vol.1(1978), p.371; Wendy Chavkin and Laurie Welch, Occupational Hazards to Reproduction (New York: Program in Occupational Health/Montefiore Medical Center, 1980); 9 To 5 NationalAssociation of Working Women, "Analysis of VDT Operator Questionnaires" (February 1984), pp.1-2; "VDT Safety Controversy Continues,"Public Citizen (August 1986), p.5; Lawrence Altman, "Some Who Use VDTs Miscarried, Study Says," New York Times (June 5, 1988); and Paul Brodeur, "Annals of Radiation III," New Yorker (June 26, 1989), pp. 39~8.

36. Nancy Wertheimer and Ed Leeper, "Electric Wiring Configurations in Childhood Cancer," American Journal of Epidemiology Vol.109, No.3 (1978), p. 273; Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, Biological Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (Hanford, Wash.: Technical Information Center, 1978); Testimony of Robert Becker, M.D., Hearings before the Subcommittee on Water and Power, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., September 22, 1987; and Paul Brodeur, "Annals of Radiation I and II," New Yorker (June 12 and June 19, 1989), pp. 51-88; pp. 47-73.

37. D. Hirsch et al., "Effect of Oral Tetracycline on the Occurrence of Tetracycline-Resistant Strains of Esch. Coli in the Intestinal Tract of Humans, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol.4 (1973), pp. 69-71; G.P. Youmans et al., The Biologic and Clinical Basis of Infectious Diseases (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1975); A. Heindahl and C.E. Nord, "Effect of Phenoxymethylpenicillin and Clindamycin on the Oral, Throat, and Faecal Microfiora of Man," Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 11(1979), pp. 233-242; and Marc Lappe, When Antibiotics Fail (Berkeley, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1986), Ch. 5.

38. W. Rinehard and P.T. Piotrow, "OCs-Update on Usage, Safety and Side Effects," Population Reports, Series A, Vol.6 (1979).

39. D.J. Greenblatt and J. Koch-Weser, "Oral Contraceptives and Hypertension," Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol.44 (1974).

40. F.A. Lyon and M.J. Frisch, "Endometrial Abnormalities Occurring in Young Women on Long-Term Sequential Oral Contracepti"es," Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol.47 (1976).

41. Phyllis Blair, "Immunologic Consequences of Early Exposure of Experimental Rodents to Diethylstilbestrol and Steroid Hormones," in Arthur Herbst and Howard Bern, eds., Developmental Effects of Diethylstilbestrol in Pregnancy (New York: Thieme-Stratton, 1981), pp. 167-178; National Center for Health Statistics, "National Health Interview Survey, U.S. 1985," Vital and Health Statistics Series 10, No.160, DHHS Publication No. (PHS)86-1588, Public Health Service (Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1986); Susan Ways et al., "Alterations in Immune Responsiveness in Women Exposed to Diethylstilbestrol in Utero," Fertility and Sterility, Vol.48, No.2 (August 1987), pp. 193-197;and Kenneth Noller et al., "Increased Incidence of Autoimmune Disease Among Women Exposed in Utero to Diethyistilbestrol," Fertility and Sterility, Vol.49, No.6 (June 1988), pp.1-3.

42. "Exposure of Male Fetus to DES Tied to Later Genital Problems," Ob/Gyn News, Vol.15, No.7 (March 1, 1980), p.7; and Henry Adams, "DES Sons," DES Action Voice, Vol.1. No.4 (1980).

43. Stanley Robboy et al., "Increased Incidence of Cervical and Vaginal Dysplasia in 3980 DES-Exposed Young Women," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol.252, No.21 (December 7' 1984), p.2979.

44. Arthur Herbst, Marian Hubby, Richard Blough, and Freidoen Azizi, "A Comparison of Pregnancy Experience in DES-Exposed and DESNonexposed Daughters," Journal of Reproductive Medicine, Vol.24, No. 2 (February 1980), p.62; and Merle Berger and Donald Goldstein, "Impaired Reproductive Performance in DES-Exposed Women," Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol.55, No.1 (January 1980), pp.25-27.

45. E.R. Greenberg, "Breast Cancer in Mothers Given DES in Pregnancy," New England Journal of Medicine Vol.311, No.22 (November 29, 1984).

46. Beatrice Trum Hunter, The Miracle of Safety: Food Additives and Federal Policy (New York: Scribner's, 1975), p.124.

47. M.O. Tisdel et a'., in G.E. Inglett, ed., Symposium: Sweetener: (New York: AVI Publishing, 1974).

48. William L~insky and Samuel Epstein, "Nitrosamines as Environmental Carcinogens," Nature, Vol.225, No.5227 (1970), pp.21-23; National Academy of Sciences, "Hazards of Nitrate, Nitrite, and Nitrosamines to Man and Livestock," Accumulation ofNitrate (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1972); R.K. Elespuru and William Lijinsky, "The Formation of Carcinogenic Nitroso Compounds From Nitrite," Food and Cosmetic Toxicology, Vol.11, No.5 (October 1973), pp.807-816; and Orville Schell, Modern Meat Antibiotics, Hormones and the Pharmaceutical Farm. (New York: Vintage Books, 1978, 1985).

49. Samuel Epstein, "Concern About Hormone Use on Livestock," Oakland Tribune (February 1, 1989).

50. Donald Nilsson, "Sources of Allergenic Gums," Annals ofAllergy, Vol. 18 (May 1966), pp.518-524.

51. Edmund Finnerty, "Uticaria and Sodium Benzoate," Cutis, Vol.8, No.5 (November 1971), pp.484-485.

52. Theron Randolph, Human Ecology and Susceptibility to the Chemical Environment (Springfield, Ill.: Charles Thomas, 1962), p.71.

53. Elmer Fishernan and Gerald Cohen, "Chemical Intolerance to BHA and BHT," Annals ofAllergy, Vol.31, No.3 (March 1973), pp. l2~133.

54. "Plasticizers Getting into Blood," Chemical and Engineering News

(February 15, 1971); "Plasticizers: New Entry on List of Suspected Contaminants," Science News, Vol. 100 (November 13, 1971), p.324; and

Robert Kelsey, "Evidence Mounts Linking Vinyl Chloride and Cancer,"

Chemical and Engineering News (February 18, 1974).

55. M.A. Boillat et al., Sozial-und Praventivmedizin (Solothurn), Vol.31

(1986), pp. 26(~262; I. Rosen et al., Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health, Vol.4(1978), pp. 18~l94; A. Kjellberg et al.,Arbe:eoch

Halsa, Vol.18 (1979), p.25; R. Lilis et al., Environmental Research, Vol.

15 (1978), pp. 133-138; A.M. Theiss and M. Friedheim, Scandinavian

Journal of Work Environment and Health, Vol.3 (1976), pp. 203-214; and

H. Checkoway et al., American Industrial Health Association Journal, Vol.43 (1982), pp. 1~169.

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License